普遍服务、市场竞争与消费者福利
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引用本文:彭树宏.普遍服务、市场竞争与消费者福利[J].经济数学,2011,(4):47-51
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作者单位
彭树宏 (1.井冈山大学 商学院江西 吉安343009
2.东北财经大学 产业组织与企业组织研究中心辽宁 大连116025) 
中文摘要:通过构建一个简单的模型分析了普遍服务约束下的垄断产业在引入竞争后的市场竞争,模型很好地展现了垄断产业引入竞争后所出现的“撇脂现象”.通过分析得出:引入竞争后,在位者的盈利和亏损同时减少,但盈利减少得更多;竞争对消费者总体上是有利的,但竞争的好处更多地被低成本的城市消费者所获得,高成本的农村消费者则没有分享到改革的成果;若继续沿用传统内部交叉补贴的融资方式为普遍服务融资的话,则垄断产业引入竞争会面临价格上涨的压力,高成本农村地区的消费者的福利将因此而变坏;普遍服务基金是一种可以减缓价格上涨压力,同时又能让在位者的普遍服务得以维持的帕累托改进制度.
中文关键词:垄断产业  普遍服务  撇脂现象  普遍服务基金
 
Universal Service, Market Competition and Consumer Welfare
Abstract:A simple model was developed to analyze market competition under universal service constraint in monopoly industries after introducing competition. The model shows “skimming phenomenon”. We find that, the incumbent’s gain and loss reduce simultaneously, but the gain reduces even more; the competition is beneficial to consumers totally, but consumers in low cost urban areas share more, and consumers in high cost urban areas don’t share the fruit of the reform. If the internal cross-subsidies continue to finance the universal service as the traditional way, then the monopoly industries will face pressure from rising prices after the introducing of competition ,and the welfare of consumers in high cost rural areas will decrease. Universal service fund is a Pareto improvement system that can reduce price rising pressure while allowing the incumbent to maintain the universal service obligation.
keywords:monopoly industries  universal service  skimming phenomenon  universal service funding
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